Although fruits are very nutritious, people with diabetes need to use caution when eating them. This is due to the fact that consuming some fruits can cause blood sugar levels to rise, which is bad for their health. Despite this, fruit is an essential part of a healthy diet for those with diabetes because it provides fibre that can lower blood sugar surges, according to Neelam Ali, a dietitian at the Noida International Institute of Medical Sciences. Additionally, she continued, it can help lower cholesterol, which is important because diabetes may increase the risk for heart disease.
According to Ali, there are a few benefits to include fruit in a diet that is suitable for those with diabetes.
The portion of plant-based foods that digestive enzymes are unable to completely break down is known as dietary fibre. The advantages of fibre include decreasing blood cholesterol, assisting in the removal of extra cholesterol and steroids, preventing blood sugar spikes, and improving satiety (the feeling of fullness) to aid in hunger control.
*Vitamins and minerals: Fruits high in potassium, which can reduce blood pressure, include bananas, oranges, melons, and apricots. Citrus fruits’ vitamin C and folic acid concentration helps the body’s immune system and supports collagen production, wound healing, and brain health.
Anthocyanins, which are potent anti-diabetic, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and anti-obesity compounds found in berries, cherries, and red grapes, can help prevent cell damage and may even slow the progression of some chronic conditions, like heart disease. Other fruits that are rich in antioxidants include peaches, figs, pears, guava, oranges, apricots, mango, cantaloupe, and papaya.
Knowing the relationship
A metabolic illness called diabetes causes excessive blood glucose, commonly referred to as high blood sugar or hyperglycemia, in its victims. According to a review from June 2017 that appeared in the International Journal of Allied Medical Sciences and Clinical Research, the digestive system converts the sugar and starches contained in many foods, such as carbs, into glucose, which is then absorbed into the circulation as sugar. The body uses glucose for energy production by absorbing it and using the hormone insulin to do it. When the body is unable to create enough insulin or utilise it efficiently, diabetes begins to form.
Fructose, an unprocessed sugar type, is the main component of fruit. Although fructose does not require insulin to be metabolised in the body, it can still be turned into glucose if necessary, which might cause an increase in blood sugar levels, according to Ali.
The glycaemic index (GI), according to Dr. Suranjit Chatterjee, senior consultant in internal medicine at Indraprastha Apollo Hospital in New Delhi, is a gauge of how quickly a food elevates blood sugar levels (glucose). Anything that has a GI of 28 elevates blood sugar just 28% as much as pure glucose does, whereas something with a GI of 100 raises it 100% as much.
So, are fruits even safe for diabetics to eat?
Checking one’s glycaemic index (GI) levels is one method for a person with diabetes to select safe and acceptable fruit. “A fruit’s ability to reduce blood sugar levels depends on its GI score. Examples of foods with 20-49 (low) GI values include avocados, strawberries, blackberries, apples, plums, grapefruit, peaches, pears, and cherries. These fruits’ high levels of fibre and low GI assist increase blood sugar tolerance. The maturity or ripeness of a piece of fruit, for example, will affect the GI of a meal, therefore it is crucial to keep this in mind, he previously told indianexpress.com.
He contends that regardless of a fruit’s low GI, the quantity and quality of the carbs should be considered. Watermelon, for example, has a high GI, yet one serving has very little carbohydrate and has very little impact on blood sugar levels, according to the expert.
According to Dr. Subhasree Ray, fruits with a GI A score of 70 or higher should be avoided when creating a diabetes meal plan because they are thought to be highly high in sugar. Fruits with a moderate GI score range in GI value from 56 to 69. According to her former editorial for indianexpress.com, low GI fruits are those with a GI value of 55 or below.
One should choose whole fruits with a low GI while paying attention to serving sizes and carb counts, Ali explained.
How to manage your blood sugar levels with fruit
Instead than eliminating specific fruit varieties, experts advise keeping track of their carbohydrate content, GI, and glycaemic load (GL) rankings. According to Ali, any blood sugar spike can be minimised by combining protein and fruit. To do this, Ali advised either including fruit in the allocated portion of carbohydrates from your meal or including protein in your fruit snack.
Fruits containing protein and good fats lower the GL, according to dietician Vidhi Chawla, creator of the Fisico Diet Clinic. Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, such as nuts with avocados, walnuts, and sunflower seed mix, are preferable to saturated and trans fats, according to Chawla, who also suggested eating two servings of fruits each day along with protein and lipids.
Mihira A. R. Khopkar, a celebrity, sports, and Olympic nutritionist, agreed and stated that taking a fruit with either a source of high protein or high fat can help control blood sugar levels even more. According to Khopkar, who spoke to indianexpress.com, “Both protein and fats take longer to digest and, therefore, when combined with carbohydrates like fruits can further help in slow release of glucose in the blood thereby improving glucose control.”
Khopkar suggests experimenting with the following pairings.
Fruit parfaits or fruit yoghurt, fruit and milk-based milkshakes or smoothies, fruits on the side with eggs of your choosing, fruits with a mix of nuts, fruits in milk-based porridge, and more (can even add a protein supplement)
Ali also provided some alternatives.
*Combine one cup of raspberries with one cup of plain Greek yoghurt. *Combine one tablespoon of almond butter with four ounces of diced apples.
One little peach and a half cup of low-fat cottage cheese should be blended.
Fruit salad should be combined with sesame seeds and charoli.